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Using produce lesson 3: Simplifying deep updates with _produce_

The Immer package exposes a produce function that does all the work.

produce(baseState, recipe: (draftState) => void): nextState

produce takes a base state, and a recipe that can be used to perform all the desired mutations on the draft that is passed in. The interesting thing about Immer is that the baseState will be untouched, but the nextState will reflect all changes made to draftState.

Inside the recipe, all standard JavaScript APIs can be used on the draft object, including field assignments, delete operations, and mutating array, Map and Set operations like push, pop, splice, set, sort, remove, etc.

Any of those mutations don't have to happen at the root, but it is allowed to modify anything anywhere deep inside the draft: draft.todos[0].tags["urgent"].author.age = 56

Note that the recipe function itself normally doesn't return anything. However, it is possible to return in case you want to replace the draft object in its entirety with another object, for more details see returning new data.


import {produce} from "immer"

const baseState = [
title: "Learn TypeScript",
done: true
title: "Try Immer",
done: false

const nextState = produce(baseState, draftState => {
draftState.push({title: "Tweet about it"})
draftState[1].done = true
// the new item is only added to the next state,
// base state is unmodified

// same for the changed 'done' prop

// unchanged data is structurally shared
// ...but changed data isn't.


  • (base)state, the immutable state passed to produce
  • recipe: the second argument of produce, that captures how the base state should be "mutated".
  • draft: the first argument of any recipe, which is a proxy to the original base state that can be safely mutated.
  • producer. A function that uses produce and is generally of the form (baseState, ...arguments) => resultState

Note that it isn't strictly necessary to name the first argument of the recipe draft. You can name it anything you want, for example users. Using draft as a name is just a convention to signal: "mutation is OK here".